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Constitutional Law: Judicial Review

We spent some time talking about judicial review, though I think we’ll get into it more later. Most people probably heard about the big case in this area at some point during high school: Marbury v. Madison. There had been elections and the Federalists were dealt serious losses. Before leaving office, the lame-duck Congress passed the “Midnight Judges Act” which added new judgeships and they confirmed new judges (all of whom were Federalists). Because the confirmations had been done so late, many commissions hadn’t gone out, and Madison wasn’t about to send them. Marbury, one of those confirmed judges, brought a mandamus action to compel Madison to deliver the commissions. There were several issues in this opinion:

1. Does Marbury have a right to the commission?

2. Does Marbury have a remedy to obtain the commission?

3. Can a writ of mandamus be enforced against the executive branch?

4. Does the Supreme Court have the power to issue the writ?

4a. Is § 12 of the Judiciary Act (which allowed the court to issue such writs) a valid exercise of congressional power?

4b. Is the court empowered to make this determination?

The court answered in the affirmative to the first three questions, thus placating the Federalists. The court said, however, that Congress didn’t have the power to enlarge the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court because that wasn’t one of the enumerated powers so the Judiciary Act was unconstitutional. The Court further said that it had the power to review the constitutionality of Congress’s grant.

We now have the question of whether judicial review means judicial supremacy or judicial finality. Before Marbury, judicial review went on and in a way that showed judicial supremacy (in that the Court invalidated legislative actions. Judicial review was a response to legislative abuse (as was bicameralism). Some argue that the majority should rule and the courts are counter-majoritarian. While this is true, there are other examples of counter-majoritarianism: the filibuster, equal voting power for the States in the Senante, and one state/one vote when presidential elections are thrown to the House to name a few. Judicial review plays an important part in our system of government by preventing abuses by those we elect.

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January 30, 2007 - Posted by | Constitutional Law

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